Begin by Googling the company to find its official web site. For example, if I want to find information on Tootsie Roll Industries, I search the company name. The first hit is http://www.tootsie.com/. So far, so good.
To find the information on a company’s financial position, look for a link, often at the top of the page or the very bottom of the page labeled
Then look for a link to financial information (http://www.tootsie.com/financials/).
Sometimes web sites get a little cryptic, and you have to click through the links to find the information. Clicking the link labeled "site map" will show you a list of every page on the web site, or at least the major pages.
Privately owned companies don't generally publish financial information on the web.