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Good Stuff to Know
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When to Cite:
Every time you use someone else's information or ideas.
Every time you summarize someone else's information or ideas.
Every time you quote someone else's information or ideas.
Every time you paraphrase someone else's information or ideas.
In other words, all the time when you are writing about other people's work or ideas.
When not to Cite:
Your own creative output, such as new conclusions, research findings, description of your method.
Use superscript numbers to cite material.¹
Insert the superscript number into the document immediately following the information being cited.
Place numbers outside periods and commas "As previously reported,¹-³..."
Place numbers inside colons and semi-colons "The derived data were as follows²:..."
Superscript numbers are assigned consecutively beginning with ¹ and continuing in order as information is cited.
Re-use the number first assigned to a source throughout the paper.
In-Text Citations with Authors' Names
It's acceptable to use authors' names in the text.
Use last names only.
For sources having one or two authors, include both. "Smith and Jones² reported..."
For items with 3 or more authors, include the first author's name and then 'et al.' or 'and colleagues'. "Smith et al.¹ reported..." or "Smith and colleagues¹ found..."
List references in the order they are cited in the text.
Acronyms & Abbreviations:
Avoid their use, except for well-known and accepted units of measurement and well-recognized terms.
Spell it out at the first use. Don't place periods between the letters.
State names should always appear as full names in the text of a manuscript. In references, use the two-letter abbreviation.
Numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) should be used in all writing, except when:
The number begins the sentence or title "Twenty percent of..."
Common fractions "Nearly three-fourths were..."
Ordinals: first through ninth "The third patient..."
Number spelled out in quotations or titles of referenced works.
Consecutive numerical expressions "The group of fifteen 65 year-olds..."
Express dates as January 22, 2017 in the text.
Numbers are acceptable 1/22/2017 in tables
Journal Title Abbreviations for AMA References
Use this search to locate official journal abbreviations. It's better than making up your own!
NLM Catalog: Journals
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